If all atoms stop moving does time continue even if everything is frozen?
It still doesn’t stop at the quantum level as explained below because of something referred to as a zero point field.
Entropy continues. Time continues. Let me tell you why. It never is “frozen”. Spacetime expands at an increasing rate unaffected by low temperature.
Space is very cold but our universe’s cosmic microwave background still keeps the minimum intergalactic temperatures even between galaxies at about 2.7 K or -270.45 C.
Within our universe EVERYTHING moves relative to something else. Even if an atom were kept at absolute zero -zero degrees Kelvin- which is about -273.15 C or -459.67 F and could stop moving at absolute zero, it still has quantum mechanical zero point energy, and it still moves in relation to something else. That movement also involves what we observe as passage of time.
Imagine a series of really giant boxes each bigger than the next representing the expansion of space over a period.
If you travel to one of the boxes it would represent where space WAS at THAT TIME when that space was that size.
Likewise the other even bigger new boxes you have yet to visit represent the continuing expansion of space -the expansion of which, by the way is accelerating- and ITS’ particular time.
We live in such an imaginary box of expanding spacetime. We experience it as the passage of time.
Atoms do exist within the box. They can be a range of temperatures including those very hot all the way down to close to absolute zero.
Read about the zero point field here:
The idea of “time stopping” in your example would be meaningless because time is always relative to something else. It isn’t the same for any two objects. It isn’t even the same for all places on earth. It’s rate of passage is affected by mass. The greater the mass the greater the change.
Someday if it turns out that the expansion stops and our universe begins to collapse back to a singularity, time can alter to a point where we mathematically might regard it as stopped.